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By Silvia Rosenthal Tolisano
Cross posted to the Langwitches Blog
Teachers and administrators struggle to find time to work together in a meaningful way. There are plenty of meetings scheduled. Many teachers leave these meetings though with the feeling of “could have spent my time doing more important things”. How do we squeeze in one more meeting to help teachers grow as professionals? How do we add one more opportunity for teachers to learn important new skills, listen to one more educational consultant, one more expert on a new initiative? How do we give teachers the time to learn with and from their own colleagues? How can teachers learn from what is going on in the classroom next door? I am a strong advocate for educators experiencing the type of learning they want to expose, inspire, support in their students’ learning. If education for the “now” and for the future demands that schools and educators prepare our citizens
- to be avid (digital) readers or writers, they should be modeling being a (digital) reader and writer
- to learn to collaborate and work on a (global) team, their teachers should have the skills to work on a (global) team
- to be online learners, their teachers need to be comfortable learning online
- to share their learning with peers, their teachers should be openly sharing their own learning with colleagues
- to become network literate , teachers need experiences with “a basic understanding of network technology, crafting a network identity, understanding of network intelligence and network capabilities”
- to leverage the power of a learning network to solve problems and answer beyond “googleable” questions, then their teachers should be connected to a learning network
- to own their own learning by actively participating and contributing, then their teachers need to be doing the same and modeling life long learning
Building an online professional development hub/community for your school will give your faculty the opportunity to experience exactly this type of learning.
An online PD Hub moves teacher learning into the “Now”, away from one-size-fits all professional development, away from Tuesday’s faculty meeting at 3 pm, away from sitting through professional development workshops that are not relevant to one’s students or subject areas. Why would you want to invest time and resources into building an online professional development hub for your school?
- Anytime Professional development can happen in your pajamas on a Sunday morning or (if you are a night person) at 10 pm at night. Teachers can learn in small chunks of time… 5 minutes here, 5 minutes there… without having to sit through an extended period of time at the end of a long day of work or on a scheduled workshop at 8 am on a weekend.
- Anywhere Learning happens not only in the faculty lounge, media center, at a workshop venue or in a conference room. It can happen at home, in your car (listening to a podcast), waiting at a doctor’s office or at your children’s swim practice or dance lessons. Professional development also does not only happen locally, but teachers can connect to colleagues and learning opportunities around the world.
- Sharing Ewan McIntosh said ” Sharing and sharing online specifically is not in addition to the work of an educator, it is THE work”. Educators are inherently people who share their knowledge. Technology enables us to share at a larger scale, beyond students who are physically in the same place at the same time. Web 2.0 tools give us the ability to create, publish and disseminate what we want to share with a world wide audience. Personal Learning Networks (PLN) are built on the fact that educators will share and contribute to the network as much as they are “taking” from it.
- Curating The word “curation” was taken from the context of a museum curator, who selects, organizes, and presents artifacts to the public using his/her professional knowledge. The school’s PD hub becomes the place (“museum”) for curated information, especially selected, organized and presented by professional educators for each other.
- Crowdsource Crowdsourcing is defined as obtaining information or input into a particular task or project by enlisting the services of a number of people. David Weinberger said: “The smartest person in the room is…. the room”. Harvesting the collective experience of teaching and learning in your school community is worth enlisting all members of your school. It is about taking advantage of a platform that supports and encourages contributions and collaboration through experiences, perspectives and educational data.
- Engage in conversation Many teachers are completely isolated in their classrooms. There is seldom time to chat with colleagues, conversations are cut short by the bell ringing, the next meeting, car pool duty or students needing additional help after class. Meetings are taken up with administrative issues and endless paperwork to be completed. A hub, designed to foster and support conversation among administration and faculty, allows educators to engage in a conversation in their own time, their own space, their interests and at their own level. It also fosters an important modern skill of being able to ” engage colleagues through the use of technology. It’s vital that we educators explore the use of digital PLC’s and the learning that can come from the connections”.
- Making learning visible A PD hub, is a platform to house a myriad of media (text, images, slide decks, videos, audio files, etc.) that showcases and makes the learning taking place at the school visible. Teachers share student learning as well as their own learning by making it visible for others to read, view or listen to.
- shared Sharing of resources is the beginning, sharing of successes and failures in our professional practices to receive feedback is the next.
- documented By documenting (taking the time to writing down reflecting on teaching and learning) and sharing the documentation provides evidence of a process and created artifacts.
- searchable The documentation is not scattered, nor available to just a few members of the school community, but is collected in one place that is searchable for all for future evidence and connections.
- archived Resources, artifacts and reflection of learning do not disappear after a project, a book study, a webinar or a workshop is over, but are being archived for later retrieval to be searched, built upon and connected to future professional development learning.
- open for feedback Sharing openly and transparently online (even on a closed school PD hub) adds the component of being able to receive feedback for your contributions from other members of the hub. The feedback cycle becomes an important component in the school PD hub for motivation, continuously extending your thinking and work.
- an aid in the process of writing and reflection Every teacher is a writing teacher. Every teacher strives to help their students reflect on their learning. John Dewey said: “We don’t learn from experiences, but from reflecting on the experience”. Teachers have little opportunity or take the time to continue to write and reflect on their own. A PD hub gives teachers the platform and the “excuse” to practice and hone their writing and reflection skills to then be able to take these skills and translate them into their classroom and teaching.
- Time There is never enough time in the life of an educator. Building a Professional Development Hub for your school will raise hairs on the backs (and resistance) of many just by thinking that it is one more thing to add to their plate. It is imperative to make it clear to members of your school community, that the time invested is of importance and will replace time spent on a different task. It is also important to clarify that in the beginning, a learning curve when reading, sharing, reflecting on the the hub is to be expected. The time invested now will pay off later.
- Basic Tech Skills Building an online Professional Development hub for your school is challenging if the majority of your faculty lacks basic technology skills. With basic skills, such as password and login management, typing skills, a certain fluency in reading and writing on a digital platform, etc. The lack of these skills seem to make the transition to a digital environment for learning filled with high obstacles and too far to reach. I have been wrestling with the issue “It is NOT about technology“/ It IS about Technology for a while ( Never Was About Technology?- Time to Focus on Learning?, Take the Technology out of the Equation) and of course, it is not about the technology (it is about learning), but I am observing more and more educators , who are not comfortable with nor technology literate, are being left out of/ behind LEARNING opportunities. It is a subtle change, one that can be masked by surrounding yourself with colleagues and administrators who do not value nor take advantage of the transformational opportunities in teaching and learning through technology.
- Embed Culture of Reflection If a school does not value reflection as part of the learning process or educators are not used to sharing their reflection, embedding reflection in your online PD hub will be a challenge. Teachers and administrators need to see the value and benefits for their own learning and growth. This does not happen overnight, nor by writing 1 reflective post. Learning about the value of a reflection over time to demonstrate growth TAKES time. According to Carol Rodgers in Defining Reflection :Another Look at John Dewey and Reflective Thinking, four criteria emerge from Dewey’s work that characterize reflection: Reflection is a meaning making process that moves a learner from one experience into the next with deeper understanding of its relationships with and its connections to other experiences and ideas. Reflection is a systematic, rigorous way of thinking, with its roots in scientific inquiry. Reflection needs to happen in community, in interaction with others Reflection requires attitudes that value the personal and intellectual growth of oneself and others.(further reading: Reflection in the learning process, not as a an add-on, Reflect…Reflecting… Reflection, The Reflective School by Peter Pappas)
- Not comfortable with sharing While sharing has always come natural to me, this might not be the case for all your teachers at your school. Some educators are not comfortable in sharing their success or failures. Reasons behind these feelings have been “I don’t want to brag”, “There is nothing I could share that has not been shared before”, “There is noting I can think of”, or ” I am a perfectionist, I could not possibly write down what I do”, “I am worried/afraid people will judge me/my writing/my spelling/my opinions/my teaching/etc.” The fact of potentially receiving feedback, embeds a different mindset when authoring and sharing material and documentation. Many are not used to that kind of open and transparent feedback.
- Building a Culture of Sharing How do we move from “never having thought about sharing my work, my reflections, my successes and failures, to a culture where sharing is deeply embedded how we work, learn and teach together. Not an easy task to build that culture, to make the act of sharing part of the fabric of our school? (further reading: Sharing and Amplification Ripple Effect, The Power and Amplified Reach of Sharing, Sharing in Education- Is it Changing?, There is a responsibility of sharing among Educators, It’s All About Sharing & Collaborating)
- Self- Directed Learning Schools, universities and continued education opportunities of pre-internet days as students have groomed us to sign up, show up, listen and receive credit as proof that we were present. With the growth of the Internet, social media platforms, MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses), personal learning networks (PLN) blogs, wikis, etc, the learner is in charge WHAT, WHEN, WHERE and HOW to learn. Materials are not pre-chosen, resoures are not stagnant or quickly outdated, a myriad of media is available to match one’s learning style. It is a challenge and struggle for educators and schools to transition to a new mind shift, where professional development is NOT chosen for them, but self-directed. Self-directed also requires the increasingly important skill of staying focused and the capability to select and filter an increasingly overwhelming information landscape.
- Self-Motivated Learning Closely related to self-directed learning is being self-motivated. The opportunity to learn anytime, anywhere and anyhow brings with it the challenge of intrinsic motivation. What happens when there is no roll-call, not physical presence required and a certain anonymity of what has been read, how much time was spent in working through resources and conversation threads? How much participation of the individual contributed to the overall connected learning of the group?
- Quality Contributions Having a professional development hub for your school and having your teachers contribute to the hub with resources, blog posts, images and videos does not necessarily equal quality contributions. It is imperative to clarify for teachers what is considered “quality” for your school community. Does a comment ” I like what you shared” constitute “quality”? Does it contribute to the value of the original post? Does complaining about students or parents enrich learning for your school community? What contributions enrich the school’s learning community and what might teachers add that distract from learning, are unprofessional in nature or contribute to a culture of bullying, passive aggressiveness and negativism?
- Clear Expectations Taking all the above mentioned challenges in consideration, it becomes important for administrators to set clear expectations for their faculty, if an online PD hub is to be successful. Will it be mandatory to participate? How much participation is expected? What happens, if a teacher chooses to not participate? What are consequences? Will there be consequences? What basic technology skills are expected/ required of faculty to be able to participate as a full member of the online community? What is the expectation of professionalism? Who will moderate, re-enforce these expectations? How will you set and communicate expectations of quality contributions?
- Choose a Platform There are many platforms to choose from for your online PD hub for your school. There is no right or wrong decision which one you will choose. I would suggest you choosing the same platform, that you are or will be using for your students. It makes all the sense in the world to have your teachers experiences and work with the same platform your students will be working with. Questions to ask when choosing the platform (to make sure the platform has the capability to accommodate your requirements): Will it be an open to the world or a closed to only members of a specific (school) community platform? Does the platform have potential for future growth? How much technology know-how do you need to set up and maintain the platform? How much will it cost? (Examples of PD platforms: WordPress Multi-user site (self hosted), Edmodo, edublogs, Eduplanet21, Ning,Google Plus)
- Build Content It is essential, especially in the beginning, to start building content on your community. It is hard for beginners, with little or no experience in online learning to envision the potential of the hub when nothing has been shared, no conversation has taken place and no visible evidence of a return investment to the time you are asking them to spend on the platform. It is worth the effort to invest in starting to populate resource areas, share downloadable and demonstrate how quality contributions might look like. You might also want to strategically ask specific members (more experienced ones with online learning) of your community to contribute in order to make “how it could look like “visible for others.
- Set Expectations Expectations can represent a challenge (see above). The clearer the expectations are for your school’s online professional development hub, the more successful the hub might become. Without set and communicated expectations, many hubs have fizzled out and did not fulfill the learning needs of the community. Once these expectations are communicated to members, revisit them often, embed them in conversations, in faculty meetings and faculty communications. If a pedagogical success, not only the mere existence of such online hub has become a priority and is to be part of the fabric of professional development at your school, expectations cannot disappear as yet another momentary initiative allowing members to fly under a radar.
- Model Use Administrators, especially a principal or head of school, are lead learners of a school community. In order to model good practices, their presence, participation and involvement is crucial on your online PD hub. Administrators model quality contribution, feedback and sharing, important characteristics of a flourishing online community. The mere presence and involvement of administrators, not only models, but also communicates clearly the shift of self-directed and motivated learning in digital places. Outside the digital learning platform, every opportunity should be taken to “demonstrate the value found with your digital [learning hub]” and strategically identify learning taking place as a result of connections made through the PD hub.
- Support Basic Tech Skills Different levels of comfort and fluency in regards to basic technology skills will be among your faculty. Make sure you have a system in place to support various levels. Walk in tech support, available step-by-step tutorials in paper form or for download, video tutorials of basic support involved in consuming, producing and contributing via the online hub. There is also the possibility of establishing a buddy system to connect less savvy teachers with mentors/coaches to support and guide the in becoming participating and active members of the school PD hub.
- Make Learning Visible What could you share on your online professional development hub? Resources, links to articles, book reviews, etc.? What makes YOUR SCHOOL’S hub unique, if members start sharing the learning that is taking place in their classroom with their students and in their own learning as educators. It is natural step to start Documenting FOR Learning and to share that learning in a visible way in a variety of media platforms (text, images, audio, video, etc.)
by Silvia Rosenthal Tolisano
cross posted to the Langwitches Blog
In Mike FIsher and my keynote/workshop last week at the Wildly Excited Conference at the Grand Rapids State University in Michigan, I shared the following blended sketchnote (blended= self-drawn doodles/sketches combined with a photograph). Participants were asked to take a look at the image and use the Visible Thinking Routine I see, I think, I wonder from Project Zero. They shared their thinking in a backchannel in a Today’s Meet room.
Before looking at my image annotations and reading the examples/ excerpt of the backchannel below with teachers’ responses, consider going through the exercise yourself. Take a few minutes to intensely look at the image above and follow the thinking routine: I see…, I think…, I wonder… Share your responses in the comment section below, adding your thoughts…sharing and making your thinking visible to others.
How could you use these techniques shown or demonstrated in your own classroom?
- visual prompts
- I see, I think, I wonder routine
- annotated sketchnoting (or other visuals?)
Teacher Visible Thinking Routine responses
- One of the difficulties of education our students learn differently than we do, by Joel
- I see an interest in connecting internationally. by Ted
- I wonder what amazing things could happen in classrooms if we all started being more techie and digital in our classrooms? by Kristi Vugteveen
- I think it is about the new age of learners by Kristi Vugteveen
- I see people handing boxes up to a person standing on them. To me this means building a learning network. by grace
- I think this is where the digital learning age is headed. I wonder if I’m ready for it by Jan
- Artwork: its Silva. Her family, life. Moving, lectures, author, etc. by margo
- Are books of no value anymore?by Sally
- how do I use this when I can only get computers once every two weeks by Joy
- Fast paced graphic learning like they are used to. Keep things moving! by Holly
- I think today’s kids brains are wired differently than most teachers over the age of 30. by Amy
- The drawing is busy a lot going on and represents changes in technology and many options of technology by Jamie
- I see various ways of gaining/sharing knowledge. I think it represents the current work. I wonder how available for kids in poverty. by Sarah
- I think my processing speed needs to incease! by Simeon
- I see what students are bombarded with on a daily basis by Jeri
- I know this is a worldwide reality and it is exciting, but no wonder our kids are ADHD. by Helena
- I see lots of possibilities!!!! by Debra v.
- collaboration by Jenn
- We need to change our way of teaching. We need to teach more about accessing information. by Monica
- I wonder: when do we allow our brains to have a break from all of those distractions by KC
- I think this is an accurate picture of our society today- lots of different ways to interact and connect with a variety of people by Kelly
- students now have the ability to visit other places and interact with others virtually, without leaving their bedroom or the classroom by TAV
- Global learning and global appreciation is more easily obtainable.by Jennifer
- Students can use various ways to present their thoughts. by Diane
- We can connect with everyone across the world. We no longer need to be in our own classroom. by Gavinator
- new literacies: apps, threads, global literacy, digital collaboration, graphics, imagery and film, multiple languages, software and programs by Emily 🙂
- I see a variety of media. by Ted
- I see the ink connecting with classes across the district or within our building could be a small start by Michele
- A bunch of disconnected images by Debra
- The power of learning in different ways. by Courtney
- Having the luxury of so many ways/strategies to help students in their learning. Looking at learning as evolving. by Nancy
- Open a book to learn new things! by Kris T
- I wonder how I can use these strategies with classroom with young ones who have special needs. by BettyJo
- I see a selfie being taken. by Jess
- There are a variety of items that are connected, but if I don’t have a way to connect them they float out in space. by Judy
- I see connections between teacher facilitation and individual work. by Ted
- #world wild learning! by Rob The Drummer
- when I look at the movie projector I think that many young kids don’t even know what it is! by Brooke
- Holy overwhelmed Batman… by Deb
- The tough part is when the students start text talking. I see that a lot in our chats in the online classroom. by Lori
- So many ways available for us to teach and learn. by Shannon
- I see flags and think I know those countries and I wonder why are those there, is that where she has been?by Teresa
- It’s like going on vacation to other places without leaving your room. by Ann
- Global learning can take place when using technology and connects students with much more information than ever before! by JFunk
- Students have so much in their minds! by Meaghan
- Constant scrolling messages distract ability to sort out my own thoughts! by Becky
- Globalization–speaking multiple languages is important to connect–by plane and/or virtually!by Stephanie
- Students are learning so much each day through so many mediums. How do we help them prioritize so it changes them?by Thelma
- Students learning in the classroom is constantly changing to the digital world. by Fran
- Represents the many ways people are connected.by Erin
- I don’t get the rain clouds in the middleby Nicole
- Students can communicate all around the world by Diane
- I see what someone brings to the classroom by Kim
- I see a lot of experiences. I think this looks like a great way to describes oneself through visuals. I wonder who drew this by Amy
- Connecting the world through digital learning and accessing new ideas. A bit overwhelming by Rose
- I think technology can pave a path toward global awareness. by Hallo
- Learning is global and there are infinite ways to share by Jenn
- I think the drawing is overwhelming by Eazy
- It’s the brain of most of our students by whistling dixie
- That image looks like the information overload that most of our kids are living with on a daily basis. 😉 by Fisher
- Many options! by Jen
- Reminds me of the book the Lexus and the olive tree by Rachel
- It helps us link or connect our learning to others by Ann
- This is a lot to take in, but this is the way our kids learn now. Very different from what I am use to by Joel
- Great for discussion! Visuals can say so much by Sandy
- I think: multitasking and information overload by KC
- I see literacy becoming more technology based and global. I wonder how it will impact students’ ability to communicate in person. by Danee
- I see learning 2.0 by Simeon
- Our small learning community is focusing on global cultural and we could reach out to other countries by Shelley
- I see interaction in person and remotely by Katie
- Linking ideas together globally by Mark
- There r endless ways to teach and communicate w students by Suzanne
- The image seems busy to my list-making mind. I’d love the pictures to be in a row. by Jill Steffens
- I Think about educational chances by Annmari
- to me it represents learning and the different possible ways to learn by Chris
- This picture reminds me of my brain right now! And many of my students! by Jayne
- I see interesting artwork that is very symbolic by KC
- Links to what is already known in the students’ lives, multiple ways of learning and multiple ways of achieving literacy. by JTrain
- I see students connected to the whole world. I think I want to do this! I wonder how I can adapt it for my third graders. by Rebecca2
- World traveler who is equipped with technology, family and friends by Rochelle
- I think this represents our ability to gather knowledge from all over the world using technology by Mel
- Helps all types of learners by Ann
- I see the ways the world is connected by Michele
- Sensory/information overload by Duane
- the power of tapping expertise worldwide by Shalom
- Connecting multiculturally. by Pam
- merging the old with the new in innovative ways by Brooke
- Digital media brings it all together by Kathleen
- Very global…learning around the world by Rachel
- I see lots of ways to communicate
by Heidi Hayes Jacobs
Ubiquitous in every sphere of education; the word “technology” is splattered loosely. No subliminal messaging here, the term is to mean that schools with wifi, tablets, one to one laptop programs, and smart boards are preparing students for the future. Simply having a computer doesn’t mean that the curriculum and instruction are contemporary and relevant. Students can be using the internet to research irrelevant and dated content. A word processor does not ensure quality writing competence. When a group of middle school students runs around campus with flip cameras, it is unlikely they will produce a first rate documentary. Perhaps there is some kind of magical thinking, that digital tools will prompt innovative outcomes.I share this concern as a firmly committed advocate for the modernization of learning opportunities.
Most telling is our current obsession with dated assessment forms. Teachers are not encouraged to innovate when their institutions are pushing time traveling to the past. Although mission statements are packed with phrases like “tomorrow’s school” and “careers of the future” and “global preparedness”, the truth is that all fifty states in my country value assessments that are basically identical in format to those used thirty years ago.Multiple choice, short answer essay prompts to de-contextualized paragraphs are the raison de vivre. Some national publishers are creating on-line testing, but the items are still the same type as those used when standardized testing first was developed. Certainly our learners need ACCESS to the global portals and dynamic applications available through digital media in order to become literate and connected, but access is insufficient.
We should pay attention to school faculties, leaders, and individual teachers who are actively and boldly upgrading curriculum content to reflect timely issues and problems and crafting modern assessments such as digital-media-global project based learning opportunities. Website curation, app design, global network research, and video/audio production are indicative of modern learning environments not only for students but for their teachers as well. What might happen if in our discourse we replace the loose use of the word technology with the phrase contemporary learning environments?
by Silvia Rosenthal Tolisano
cross posted to Langwitches Blog
I am a documenter, I have always been… maybe it is in my blood…
…from keeping diaries from an early age on, being the family letter writer, to taking pictures to document our lives, vacations, family and friends… even when it was tedious… (taking 24 or 36 exposures at a time, then taking it to a photo store to develop them and waiting a week to being able to pick them up).
I am the family historian, creating family albums, chasing and writing down family tree connections….I am the storyteller… repeating family stories… so my children and grandchild(ren) will know where they came from…to not let voices of the past quiet down and disappear…
…so maybe it is in MY blood…but… even if it is not in YOUR blood… as an educator… take another look at the purpose and effect of documenting FOR learning…in my opinion, documenting serves a larger…big picture purpose in education…
Documenting FOR Learning is:
- a supporting piece for the study of self-determined learning–> Heutagogy
- a strategy, approach and technique to facilitate learning–> Pedagogy
- a process of intentional documenting serves a metacognitive purpose
- a creative multimedia expression (oral, visual, textual)
- a component of reflective practice
- taking ownership of one’s learning
- a memory aid
- professional development
- being open for feedback
While I have, until now, primarily seen and used documentation for my own and other’s professional learning by documenting student learning and learning/teaching strategies, one of the take-aways from a workshop I attended recently with Ben Mardell, Making Learning Visible, was that documenting student learning in the classroom is an integral component to inform the direction further instruction and content is to take.
Intentional educational documenting is multi-layered and can serve teachers, students and schools/districts:
- to share best practices with colleagues
- to make teaching available for students outside of classroom hours
- to inform further instructions
- to reflect on their own lesson plans, delivery and teaching pedagogy
- to gather and showcase their teaching portfolio over time
- to evaluate student progress, growth and for assessment
- to articulate (via different forms of media) and showcase their learning
- to become aware of their own learning growth
- to gather and archive their digital work via E- portfolios
- to build their footprint in a digital world
- Schools/ District
- to a certain degree in their marketing efforts
- in parent / community communication
- to attract like minded potential employees
- to provide Professional Development
- provide documentation and examples to linked curriculum maps
I use the following types of tools for documenting:
- Notes (traditional/annotated)
- Slide deck
- Screenshooting and – casting
A very interesting article, titled Pedagogical Documentation (pdf) from the Ontario’s Capacity Building Series by The Student Achievement Division supports the notion that pedagogical documentation helps students take ownership of their learning, challenges teachers to
“see children differently. Different kinds of demonstrations of learning moved us all beyond what we had come to expect, and led us to a place of valuing each child’s contribution. What was made visible was the learning process of children , their multiple languages, and the strategies used by each child.”
In Reggio Emilia, teachers make records of events in the life of the school as a tool for research. This has come to be known as ‘pedagogical documentation’ because of the important role it has in supporting reflective practice. (Dahlberg et all. 1999: 144). Pedagogical documentation consists of records that are made for the purpose of pedagogical research.
Pedagogical documentation could be described as visible records (written notes, photos, videos, audio recordings, children’s work) that enable teachers, parents and children to discuss, interpret and reflect upon what is happening from their various points of view, and to make choices about the best way to proceed, believing that rather than being an unquestionable truth, there are many possibilities.
Beyond the benefits in early childhood, I did not find much in regards to Documenting for Learning with older students (K-16) and adult learners as part of their professional development.
What are your thoughts? What type of research have you come across? Have you conducted action research in your own classroom? With your PD? What are the benefits/disadvantages? Should documenting have an “official place” in our overall learning toolbox? Should documenting be part of every work-and learnflow?